The launching event of the Vietnam Stocktaking report on Transport and Climate Change took place on 28th October 2015 in Hanoi, Vietnam, at the “Green Growth Action Plan” workshop organised by the Transport Development and Strategy Institute, Ministry of Transport (TDSI). Participants included the representatives of Department of Environment (Ministry of Transport), Transport Development and Strategy Institute and other departments, agencies, academic institutes under the Ministry of Transport. At the launch event, Mr. Nguyen Huu Tien, Deputy Director General of the Department of Environment (MoT) and Mrs. Nguyen Thi Phuong Hien, Deputy Director-General,TDSI, received an official Vietnam Stocktaking Report from Mr. Stefan Bakker, Advisor of the project Transport and Climate Change, ASEAN-German Technical Cooperation, GIZ. The report was prepared by Clean Air Asia and GIZ.
Date: October 2015
This report aims to provide an up to date picture of the transport sector and transport-related greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation policies in Vietnam, in order to provide policy-makers, researchers, international donors and other stakeholders a reference document for sustainable transport and climate change. It covers the full land transport sector, including passenger and freight, and discusses existing data based on the Activity-Structure-Intensity-Fuel (ASIF) approach, policies and monitoring for sustainable transport and climate, barriers towards low-carbon transport, international donors, and finally recommendations for further action on policy development.
- Transport is the third largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter in the energy sector in Vietnam, accounting for 31.8 MtCO2e or 23% of the energy sector emissions (2010). Due rapid motorisation, transport GHG emissions are projected to rise to 87.8 Mt by 2020.
- Transport-related data and statistics are relatively well-collected, however data quality and availability are still a challenge as transport data collection is fragmented and done on an ad-hoc basis for some.
- The Avoid-Shift-Improve approach is used to compile a comprehensive overview of existing policies in passenger and freight transport.
- Several strategies related to sustainable transport, climate change and energy efficiency exist, together covering avoid, shift and improve measures, with more emphasis on passenger as compared to freight transport. The strategies also include objectives and specific targets related to public and multi-modal transport, energy and emission-savings, as well as the limitation of growth in private motorisation.
- In order to move towards a more comprehensive monitoring system, increased collaboration between different public and private organisations that are already collecting data is required, as well as a central management system with consistent data formats.
- Climate change instruments such as nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), which Vietnam is currently developing for urban transport, fuel efficiency and green freight, can also help build a framework for sustainable transport measures, in addition to bringing in international technical and financial support.
- Recommendations include to make voluntary fuel economy standards mandatory so as to ensure effectiveness; to introduce a green label scheme to the freight sector along with technological improvements; alter the patterns of private vehicles ownership and its use and promote public and non-motorised transport (e.g. CO2-based vehicle taxation, market-based mechanisms like auctioning titles, congestion charges and parking charges, and requiring road users to pay for infrastructure and services), to develop transit-oriented development and other integrated land-use planning concepts, to improve the route optimisation and frequency of bus service; and to ensure better coordination and frequency of data and indicator collection.
- Transport and climate data
- General Information
- GHG emissions from the transport sector
- Emission Reduction Potential from the Transport Sector
- Bottom-up data review (Transport activity – Modal Share – Energy intensity – Fuel emission factors)
- Data Availability and Quality
- Policies and institutions
- Institutional Structure and Stakeholders
- Regulatory Framework and Initiatives for Sustainable Transport
- Existing policies
- Barriers to sustainable, energy-efficient transport
- Activities by international organisations
- Policy recommendations
- Statistical notes and tables