ASEAN

At the ASEAN level, TCC advises and supports the implementation of the Kuala Lumpur Transport Strategic Plan 2016-2025 (KLTSP). Input and support for the development of this plan — which includes a specific chapter on sustainable transport for the first time — was given during the first phase of the project.

The project regularly participates in relevant ASEAN working groups such as the Land Transport Working Group and the Transport Facilitation Working Group to update and inform on project activities.

As part of the project agreement, TCC´s main beneficiary countries are Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Other ASEAN countries benefit through regional products and participation in regional platform meetings and other conferences.

The activities on a regional level focus on the implementation of specific sustainable transport goals of the KLTSP, namely:

  • Sustainable Transport Goal (ST) 1.1: Intensify regional cooperation in the development of sustainable transport-related policies and strategies.
  • ST 1.3: Initiate and support to the development and implementation of fuel economy policies and standard as well as policies towards cleaner fuels and vehicles and vessels
  • ST 1.4: Develop a regional framework towards green and efficient freight and logistics in order to support ASEAN Member States in implementing respective policies.
  • ST 2.3: Develop monitoring framework and harmonised approach for indicators on energy and GHG emission in the transport sector.
  • ST 3.1: Strengthen sustainable transport education and training through greater networking with training centres, educational institutions and expert institutions

The work and activities on national level are linked with the support on regional level and vice versa.

Please refer to country pages for more information or, if you would like to gain more insights on the content, please have a look here.

Indonesia

Indonesia is the TCC partner country with the largest population, of which 54% are living in urban areas (2015)[5]. Yet, the population is spread out across 922 permanently inhabited islands.

In Indonesia, the TCC project focusses on sustainability in the road freight sector and fuel economy standards for road vehicles. It is complimentary to other transport-related projects of GIZ in Indonesia such as Sustainable Urban Transport Improvement (SUTIP) Project (ended in September 2016) and SUTRI-NAMA. TCC has been implementing joint-activities with Ministry of Transport (MoT) as the main counterpart as well as other sectoral ministries, including Ministry of Industry.

Population

91,700,000 (July 2016) [1]

Urban population

33.6% of total population (2015) [2]

GDP per capita (current USD) [3]

US$ 2,111.1 (2015)

Transport CO2 emissions (Mt) [4]

32.9

Number of vehicles in 2013 [5] (growth compared to previous year)

40 790 84 (16%)

Motorisation rate

380 vehicles/ 1000 inhabitants

Country Activities

The project support MoT in developing and implementing strategies to increase energy efficiency and reduce GHG emission in the land transport sector. The TCC project has supported MoT to develop Guidelines for BAU Baseline calculation from the transport sector and support other MRV related activities.

The project is similar to other countries preparing a stocktaking report which provides an up to date picture of the land transport sector and transport-related greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation policies in Indonesia. The project has been working with Research and Development Agency of MoT (Balitbanghub) on the area of green freight and logistics.

Other stocktaking reports for Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia are already available.

For more information, please contact our country coordinator for Indonesia: Ms. Monica Adriatni

[1] World Bank Data (2015)
[2] Word Bank Data (2015)
[3] Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2016, URL: http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2016/ last accessed 16/10/2016
[4] Including motorcylces
[5] BPS, 2014

Malaysia

With the highest GDP per capita of 9,766.2 USD in 2015 among the TCC partner countries, Malaysia’s car ownership rate equalled 360 passenger cars for every 1,000 Malaysians in 2015, whereas the share of 2-wheelers are almost similar to the total number of passenger cars. The 2-wheelers share is the lowest of all TCC partner countries and equalled 47% in 2015.

The Transport and Climate Change project (TCC) closely cooperates with the Logistics and Land Transport Division and Road Transport Department (JPJ) under the Ministry of Transport (MoT), the Infrastructure and Utilities Section and Energy Section under the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) and Malaysia Automotive Institute (MAI).

Population

91,700,000 (July 2016) [1]

Urban population

33.6% of total population (2015) [2]

GDP per capita (current USD) [3]

US$ 2,111.1 (2015)

Transport CO2 emissions (Mt) [4]

32.9

Number of vehicles in 2013 [5] (growth compared to previous year)

40 790 84 (16%)

Motorisation rate

380 vehicles/ 1000 inhabitants

Country Activities

In Malaysia, TCC focusses on institutional strengthening and policy support in the transport sector. Similar to the other partner countries, a stocktaking report was developed for the land transport sector. Based on this report, further actions to implement and align the national transport planning with the KLTSP will be identified. The project is supporting JPJ to develop a standard to legalise the road usage of 25 km/h to 50 km/h electric motorcycles (2-wheelers).

The project will support EPU with capacity building for Demand Side Management Preliminary Study and also conduct a training on the selection of suitable tools for sustainable transport indicator/ data analysis.

In the past, TCC supported the development of a NAMA proposal titled “Towards Energy Efficient Two-Wheelers in Malaysia (EE2W)” in collaboration with Malaysia Green Technology Cooperation (MGTC) and provided knowledge exchanges through workshops on Green Freight and Fuel Economy.

For more information, please contact our country coordinator for Malaysia, Ms. Jeyashri Kisna.

[1] Source: Population Clock: Malaysia, URL: https://www.statistics.gov.my, last checked on 24/11/2016.@ 11.25 a.m.
[2] Source: CIA World Factbook (2016): Malaysia, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/my.html, last checked on 16/10/2016.
[3] Source: World Bank Data (2015)
[4] Source: Malaysia Stocktaking Report on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change 2016
[5] Vehicles include passenger cars, freight vehicles, motorcycles and buses. Source: Malaysia Stocktaking Report on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change 2016

Philippines

With a population of 100.98 million in 2015 scattered across the 2,000 permanently inhabited islands, the Philippines has the lowest road density among the TCC partner countries with 88.62% of all the roads being paved in 2015[1]. In 2015, 2- and 3- wheelers accounted for 56.02% of the total number of registered vehicles[2]. The car ownership rate is relatively low and equalled 30 passenger cars per 1,000 capita in 2010[3].

TCC Philippines directly works with the Road Transport Planning Division under the Office of the Undersecretary for Planning and the Office of the Undersecretary for Road Transportation and Infrastructure of the Department of Transportation (DoTr). TCC Philippines also closely collaborates with the Department of Energy (DoE) and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to mobilise activities on fuel economy and green freight and logistics, respectively.

Population

91,700,000 (July 2016) [1]

Urban population

33.6% of total population (2015) [2]

GDP per capita (current USD) [3]

US$ 2,111.1 (2015)

Transport CO2 emissions (Mt) [4]

32.9

Number of vehicles in 2013 [5] (growth compared to previous year)

40 790 84 (16%)

Motorisation rate

380 vehicles/ 1000 inhabitants

Country activities

In the Philippines, the project initially focused on extensive support for the institutionalisation and management of the Special Vehicle Pollution Control Fund (SVPCF). This includes the (i) development of the operating policies and guidelines for the implementation and monitoring of the SVPCF and (ii) the institutional strengthening of the Environmentally Sustainable Initiatives Transportation Unit (ESITU) under the Road Transport Planning Division. The project also supported the development of the stock-taking report on transport and climate change entitled ‘Tracking Sustainable Transport in the Philippines: Data and Policy Review for Energy Efficiency and Climate Change’ and the updating of the National Implementation Plan (NIP) on Environment Improvement in the Land Transport Sector 2016-2020, as products in the first phase

In line with the updated NIP in the Land Transport Sector 2016—2020 of the DoTr that included better freight and logistics management as one of the priority areas, the project has provided technical inputs to the Philippine Multi-modal Transportation and Logistics Industry Roadmap, spearheaded by the Philippine International Seafreight Forwarders Association, Inc. (PISFA), and which was launched in March 2016. Technical contributions to support the development of a green freight and logistics strategy is a foreseen area of support by the project in collaboration with DOTr and DTI.

Moreover, the project is also supporting the vehicle fuel economy standards and labelling scheme by further developing the fuel economy roadmap with DOE and which is in line with the NIP of the DoTr.

For more information, please contact our country coordinators Dr. Marie Danielle Guillen or Ms. Cristina Villaraza.

[1] Department of Public Works and Highways (2015). Road Data. http://www.dpwh.gov.ph/infrastructure/infra_stat/2015RBI/2015%20DPWH%20Road%20Data/Road%20Data%202015/index.htm
[2] Land Transportation Office (2015). Annual Report. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/keystat/sefi.pdf
[3] Source: Nationmaster, URL: http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Transport/Road/Motor-vehicles-per-1000-people last checked 16/10/2016.
[1] Philippine Statistics Authority (2015). Census Population.
[2] Philippine Statistics Authority (2015). Urban Population and Level of Urbanization by Region. https://psa.gov.ph/content/urban-barangays-philippines-based-2010-cph
[3] Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (2016). Selected Economic and Financial Indicators. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/keystat/sefi.pdf
[4] Clean Air Asia (2012). Accessing Asia: Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases from Road Transport and Electricity.
Also cited in the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (2016). Tracking Sustainable Transport in the Philippines: Data and Policy Review for Energy Efficiency and Climate Change 2015. To be published.
[5] Vehicles include passenger cars, utility vehicles, freight vehicles, motorcycles and buses.
[6] Land Transportation Office (2015). Annual Report. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/keystat/sefi.pdf
[7] NTPP Project Estimates, AusAID Activity 1 Report 2008. Also cited in the National Implementation Plan on Environment Improvement in the Transport Sector 2016-2020. Department of Transportation. Philippines
[8] ASEAN (2015). Statistical Yearbook.

Thailand

In Thailand, the share of 2/3-wheelers is decreasing steadily. While in 2004 2/3-wheelers accounted for 67.4% of the total number of passenger cars and 2/3-wheelers, their share has decreased to 60.5% in 2013[1]. Another interesting fact is that the rail network density is the highest among the five TCC partners with 60.2 km per million capita in 2013[2].

The Transport and Climate Change project (TCC) closely collaborates with the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning (OTP) under the Ministry of Transport (MoT) and the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE).

Population

91,700,000 (July 2016) [1]

Urban population

33.6% of total population (2015) [2]

GDP per capita (current USD) [3]

US$ 2,111.1 (2015)

Transport CO2 emissions (Mt) [4]

32.9

Number of vehicles in 2013 [5] (growth compared to previous year)

40 790 84 (16%)

Motorisation rate

380 vehicles/ 1000 inhabitants

Country Activities

In Thailand, during phase I (2012-2015), the project focussed on two levels. First, the project comprised sector-wide measures and second, the project activities targeted specific sectors. The activities on the former level include (1) the support of the nationwide sustainable transport policy and (2) the support of the improvement of the monitoring system in the transport sector. The distinguished output of this activity was the stocktaking report which collected transport and climate data and policies in Thailand. The activities on the latter level aimed to support selected sustainable transport policy measures and their MRV system.

In the second phase (2016-2018), TCC activities in Thailand focus on 3 major topics; 1) policy gap analysis 2) fuel efficiency policy and 3) MRV system development for the land transport sector.

In addition, TCC is supporting the development of Thailand´s NDC for the transport sector.

For more information, please contact our country coordinator for Thailand Ms Gessarin Gunthawong.

[1] CIA World Factbook: Thailand, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/th.html last checked 16/10/2016
[2] ASEAN Japan Transportation Partnership (2014): Rail Transport 2013: http://www.ajtpweb.org/statistics/compareasean/Rail_Transport/Rail_Transport_2013, last checked on 14/07/2015.
[1] Source: CIA World Factbook: Thailand, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/th.html last checked 16/10/2016
[2] Source: CIA World Factbook: Thailand, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/th.html last checked 16/10/2016
[3] Source: World Bank Data (2016)
[4] Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2016, URL: http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2016/ last accessed 16/10/2016
[5] Vehicles include passenger cars, freight vehicles, motorcycles and buses.
[6] Source: Monitoring transport GHG emissions in Thailand, 2016, URL: http://transportandclimatechange.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Thailand_MRV-PSK_2016.pdf
[7] Source: OICA Motorization rate 2014, URL: http://www.oica.net/world-vehicles-in-use-all-vehicles-2/

Viet Nam

The great majority of passenger vehicles in Vietnam are 2/3 wheelers, which accounted for 94.7% of the total number of passenger vehicles in 2013[1]. This is the highest 2/3 wheeler share among all TCC partner countries, and worldwide for that matter. In 2010, the total number of vehicles in the country reached 31.3 million vehicles and then continuously increased to 38.6 million vehicles in 2012 (Vietnam Register). Between 2000 and 2010, the total number of vehicles in Vietnam increased at an average rate of 17.7% per year (Clean Air Asia, 2012) while the average rate for 2010-2012 is 11.1% per year (Vietnam Register, 2013)[2]. In 2008, 45.4% of the freight volume (by tonnage) was transported by road. It is projected that in 2030 the road freight sector will account for a tonnage share 57.2%[3].

The Transport and Climate Change project (TCC) closely collaborates with two agencies under the Ministry of Transport (MoT): the Department of Environment (DoE) and the Transport Development and Strategy Institute (TDSI).

Population

91,700,000 (July 2016) [1]

Urban population

33.6% of total population (2015) [2]

GDP per capita (current USD) [3]

US$ 2,111.1 (2015)

Transport CO2 emissions (Mt) [4]

32.9

Number of vehicles in 2013 [5] (growth compared to previous year)

40 790 84 (16%)

Motorisation rate

380 vehicles/ 1000 inhabitants

Country Activities

In Vietnam, the project focusses on fuel efficiency policies for passenger cars and motorcycles while also plan to approach two- and three-wheelers including electrification.

On green freight & logistics, the project will come up with the idea of development of a green freight master plan/action plan and green freight labelling. In addition, the project continues to include data collection, indicators, training, and Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) for the mitigation actions which have been proposed in the Ministry of Transport’s climate change action plan (CCAP).

In 2015, the Vietnam Stocktaking Report was developed and published.

For more information, please contact our country coordinator for Vietnam, Mr. Nguyen Anh Tuan.

[1] Source: WHO Global Status Report on Road Safety (2015), URL: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2015/en/ last checked on 16/10/2016.
[2] Tracking Sustainable Transport in Vietnam: Data and Policy Review for Energy Efficiency and Climate Change 2015 http://transportandclimatechange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Vietnam.pdf
[3] Blancas Mendivil, Luis C.; Isbell, John; Isbell, Monica; Tan, Hua Joo; Tao, Wendy (2014): Efficient Logistics – A Key to Vietnam’s competitiveness, World Bank, URL: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/11/18562951/efficient-logistics-key-vietnams-competitiveness, p. 19
[1] Vietnamplus 2016
[2] Source: CIA World Factbook (2016): Vietnam, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html, last checked on 16/10/2016.
[3] Source: World Bank Data (2016), URL: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD last checked on 16/10/2016.
[4] Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2016, URL: http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2016/ last accessed 16/10/2016
[5] Vehicles include passenger cars, freight vehicles, motorcycles and buses.